Whit git the work repository is located in the root directory of the project. Specifically is located in a hide directory named .git.
In this directory all commits, versions and branches are stored.
Git principal characteristic is the posibility of working with different remote repositories. With git is easy to share code between programmers or send the final code to a production or preproduction repository without loosing track of the version and changes always.
Installing git in macOS
Git is inlcuded with the last Xcode command line tools. Also it can be downloaded from git-osx-installer for Mac OS X
$git config --global user.name "Your name here" $git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org" # optional, but recommended $git config --global merge.tool vimdiff $git config --global core.editor vim $git config --global color.ui true
2. Basic commands
To initialize the version control of git use the command init.
$ cd project $ git init
This will creata a subdirectory .git . In this directory all commits will be stored. But initially is all empty: the command init doesn’t add the files to the repository. To do that use the command add
$ git add .
Command add is recursive. Indicating a directory as parameter, it add that directory and all files and subdirectories recursively.
Also it can be used to add only one file.
$ git add README
Although the add command doesn’t add the file to the repo directly. wht it does is to add the file to a virtual zone of the repository called stage. To add to the repository avery change or file, first it must be added to the stage those modified or created files. Once do it, you can add the changes to the repo with the command commit.
$ git commit -m 'first commit'
Command commit requires a message. Without a text, appears a text editor to set a message text.
To know the state of a file use the command:
$ git status
Is recommended to configure git with the flag color.ui set to true
To create a branch:
$ git branch new_branch
This will create a new developement branch copying the las made commit. To create a new brach is recommended to have save or undo every change in the current path. Otherwise, git will alert that the new branch cannot be created.
To change from one branch to anohter use the command checkout
$ git checkout new_branch
To merge branches:
$ git merge branch1
This will mix the current branch with the indicated as paran. Also creates a new commit in the current branch.
In case of conflicts, they should be resolved before create a new commit.
There are cases in which, making a merge, happends a fastforward
When a change is made in a branch, the original branch -from where the current branch was created- it’s possible that remains untouched. If so, when a merge is donem git realizes that doen’t have to mix the code, it only has to change the HEAD pointer to the last commit of the original branch to the HEAD pointer of the new branch. This is called fastforward
The problem of this fastforwards is that the new branch dessapears without a trace. If we want to keep that branch or create a new commit in the original branch, you can user the parameter –no-ff .
$ git merge --no-ff branch1
This will avoid the fastforward.
4. Undoing changes
There are some ways to undo changes.
Avoid to add a change to a commit
If we had added a file to the stage incorrectly, we can remove with the command reset. This way we avoid to add the change to the commit.
$ git reset HEAD file
Changing the las commit
If in the las commit you forgot to add the file, you can use the parameter –ammend to add a change to the las commit done.
$ git commit -m 'first commit' $ git add file $ git commit --ammend
Deleting changes in a local file
If we had changed incorrectly a file or we want to return to a previous version, we can use the commmand checkout. This command extracts from the repository the wanted version and overwites the files contained in the working directory. By default this command extracts the las version of the current branch.
$ git checkout -- file
Deleting the las commit
If we had made an incorrect commit, we can undo it with reset command:
$ git reset --hard HEAD^
In order to eliminate several commits use the parameter HEAD~3
5. Resolving conflicts
A conflict can be solved in two diffent ways:
Edit the file wiht the conflict
Git marks conflicts en the files with a text using the followings marks:
- «««< HEAD
- >>>>>>> branch
The text between the marks 1 and 2 is the text from the active branch. The text between the marks 2 and 3 is the one of the merged branch.
Once eliminated these marks, we must add the file to the stage with the command add. Once all the conflicts are resolved, we must make the commit.
Undo the merge of a conflicted file
If we don’t want to resolve the conflicts, we can extract a new version of the previous file to substitue the conflicted one.
If we want to keep the current branch version, we use the modifier –ours:
$ git checkout --ours file
If we want to keep the merged branch version of the file, we use the modifier –theirs:
$ git checkout --theirs file
6. Remote repositories
To initialize a new project downloading the files from a remote repository, you must use the command clone:
$ git clone proyect_url
This command not only copies the files of the remote project, also it configures the current branch linking it with the remote brach (track).
When a local branch has one or more associated remote branches, we can share code with that branches.
With the command pull we can download the last changes done in the remote branch. With the command push we can send to the remote branch the last changes done.
$ git pull origin master $ git push origin master
Need two parameters. First the name of the remote repository. Sencond, the name of the remote branch.
To know what remotes has configured a local branch use the following command:
$ git remote show origin
To add a new remote to a local repository use the command remote add:
$ git remote add remote_name remote_url
Once configured the remote, all files and references can be downloaded with the command fetch:
$ git fetch remote_name
Create a remote respository
Two things are needed to create a remote repository:
- A remote access
- A bare repository
You can use ssh, or a shared directory. The allowed protocols are:
A repository is named bare when has not any associated directory. This allows to use like a remote repository in order to use by others working repositories.
You can create an empty initial bare repository with the following command:
$ git init --bare
Also it can create a bare repository cloning an existing repository:
$ git clone --bare url_rep new_rep
In order to extract information about the commits of the current branch we have the command log:
$ git log
A command very useful to see graphically all the branches and merges, also to see the messages associated to the following:
$ git log --graph --decorate --pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit --all
Web sites that allow to use git
Websites that host Git